Dental problems are among the most naturally occurring health problems found in pets. Today, our Carlsbad vets discuss how you can identify, treat, and prevent some of the most common dental problems found in your furry companion.
Periodontal Disease in Pets
Periodontal disease refers to the deterioration of the gum and bone that surround the tooth. This most commonly occurs when untreated plaque and tartar stick to the tooth and make their way beneath the gum line.
This disease starts in the form of gingivitis and develops into periodontal disease as the gum and bone around the tooth deteriorate. As this occurs, pockets around the tooth can develop, allowing food and bacteria to collect below the tooth. If left unattended, dangerous infections can arise and the teeth will begin to fall out.
Common symptoms of canine periodontitis include:
- Excessive drooling
- Blood on chew toys or in the water bowl
- Favoring one side of the mouth when chewing
- “Ropey” or bloody saliva
- Reduced appetite
- Problems keeping food in the mouth
- Discolored teeth (brown or yellow)
- Loose or missing teeth
- Bad breath
- Weight loss
- Inflamed or bleeding gums
If you notice any of these symptoms present in your pet, please contact a veterinarian.
Plaque & Tartar Buildup
Just like humans, our pets will accumulate plaque and tartar buildup over time, especially without regular cleanings. Plaque is a whitish substance made up primarily of bacteria, that if left on the tooth, will harden and turn a more yellowish color (also called calculus). Tartar will remain stuck to the tooth until it is scraped off with an object such as those used by a veterinarian.
Plaque and tartar buildup are the main causes of gum disease in pets as well as tooth loss. The most common signs for a pet owner to look out for are gingivitis (very red and swollen gum line), discolored deposits on the teeth, and increasingly bad breath. As the dental disease gets worse, your pet may experience even worse breath as well as bleeding of the gums.
With all of the chewing that pets do whether they are eating or playing, it is not surprising that tooth fractures are a very common occurrence. Even everyday items that pets use can be the cause of a tooth fracture such as bones or hard plastic used to make toys.
Pet chew toys should be small enough that your companion doesn't have to entirely open its mouth, but large enough that there won't be a concern of accidentally swallowing or choking on the toy.
An oral infection is an outcome of a pocket (usually around the root of the tooth) that has been filled with bacteria. Infections are primarily caused by periodontitis but can also be initiated due to trauma-induced chewing on hard or sharp objects. Some infections can be fatal as the bacteria makes its way to the bloodstream and cause organ disease/failure in the heart, liver, kidneys, or brain.
How to Prevent Dental Problems
Creating a dental care routine for your pet is a great way to maintain their oral hygiene and prevent oral issues.
Introducing food or water additives is an easy way to improve and maintain the health and strength of their teeth and bones. Adjusting your pet's diet can also increase oral hygiene, even with small exchanges like providing dental chews instead of less healthy treats.
Brushing your pet's teeth regularly is an ideal tactic for pet owners to use. Although it is not very realistic, brushing their teeth every day would be best if your pet will tolerate the process.
Be sure to bring your pet in for an oral hygiene cleaning and examination at least once every year. Some smaller breeds of pets should go two or more times a year due to their teeth's shallow roots.